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  1. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease associated with isolated thrombocytopenia, which is caused by an imbalance between platelet production and platelet destruction. Petechial and mucous memb...

    Authors: Hannah von Lukowicz, Paul-Gerhardt Schlegel, Christoph Härtel, Henner Morbach, Imme Haubitz and Verena Wiegering
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:11
  2. Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) play a major role in energy homeostasis, metabolism, and reproductive function. While effects of biallelic likely pathogenic variants (-/-) on the phenotype are well charac...

    Authors: Ingrid Koerber-Rosso, Stephanie Brandt, Julia von Schnurbein, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Josef Hoegel, Hannah Rabenstein, Reiner Siebert and Martin Wabitsch
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:10
  3. The impairment of nephrogenesis can cause the termination of nephron formation in preterm and low birth weight babies. This leads to oligonephropathy with severe health consequences in later life. Although man...

    Authors: Will W. Minuth
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:9
  4. After pediatric kidney transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy is given to avoid acute and chronic rejections. However, the immunosuppression causes an increased risk of severe viral complications and bacte...

    Authors: Thurid Ahlenstiel-Grunow and Lars Pape
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:8

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:14

  5. Infantile myofibromatosis (IM) is the most common cause of multiple fibrous tumors in infancy. Multicentric disease can be associated with life-threatening visceral lesions. Germline gain-of-function mutations...

    Authors: Tristan Römer, Norbert Wagner, Till Braunschweig, Robert Meyer, Miriam Elbracht, Udo Kontny and Olga Moser
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:7
  6. Ca2+ as a universal second messenger regulates basic biological functions including cell cycle, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. Lack of the protein mitochondrial calcium uptake1 (MICU1),...

    Authors: Fatemeh Bitarafan, Mehrnoosh Khodaeian, Elham Amjadi Sardehaei, Fatemeh Zahra Darvishi, Navid Almadani, Yalda Nilipour and Masoud Garshasbi
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:6
  7. Immune-mediated cytopenias (AIC) are challenging complications following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). While broad-acting immunosuppressive agents like corticosteroids are often st...

    Authors: Lina Driouk, Robert Schmitt, Anke Peters, Sabine Heine, Hermann Josef Girschick, Brigitte Strahm, Charlotte M. Niemeyer and Carsten Speckmann
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:5
  8. Reverse transcription of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (+)RNA genome and subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) and subsequent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the relia...

    Authors: Patrick Philipp Weil, Jacqueline Hentschel, Frank Schult, Anton Pembaur, Beniam Ghebremedhin, Olivier Mboma, Andreas Heusch, Anna-Christin Reuter, Daniel Müller, Stefan Wirth, Malik Aydin, Andreas C. W. Jenke and Jan Postberg
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:4
  9. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are low in adult subjects with obesity when compared to normal-weight individuals. Obesity is associated with higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) plasma levels ...

    Authors: Marta Ramon-Krauel, María Jesús Leal-Witt, Óscar Osorio-Conles, Montse Amat-Bou, Carles Lerin and David M. Selva
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:3
  10. Epidermal development is a complex process of regulated cellular proliferation, differentiation, and tightly controlled cell death involving multiple cellular signaling networks. Here, we report a first descri...

    Authors: Claudia Dafinger, Thomas Benzing, Jörg Dötsch, Bernhard Schermer and Max C. Liebau
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2021 8:1
  11. In the last years, great advances have been made in the effort to understand how nutritional influences can affect long-term renal health. Evidence has accumulated that maternal nutrition before and during pre...

    Authors: Eva Nüsken, Jenny Voggel, Gregor Fink, Jörg Dötsch and Kai-Dietrich Nüsken
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:17
  12. Isolated growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is defined by growth failure in combination with retarded bone age, low serum insulin-like growth factor-1, and insufficient GH peaks in two independent GH stimulation ...

    Authors: Gerhard Binder, Dirk Schnabel, Thomas Reinehr, Roland Pfäffle, Helmuth-Günther Dörr, Markus Bettendorf, Berthold Hauffa and Joachim Woelfle
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:16
  13. Unlike infections with mycobacteria, reports of unusual viral infections in interferon-gamma-receptor (IFNγR) deficient patients are scarce. Therefore, discussion about increased susceptibility to viral infect...

    Authors: Julia Körholz, Nicole Richter, Jochen Schäfer, Catharina Schuetz and Joachim Roesler
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:14
  14. Glomerulonephritis results in a dysregulation of glomerular cells and may end up in chronic alterations and subsequent loss of renal function. Therefore, understanding mechanisms, which contribute to maintain ...

    Authors: Ines Marek, Karl Friedrich Hilgers, Wolfgang Rascher, Joachim Woelfle and Andrea Hartner
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:13
  15. Linear bone growth is achieved by the division of chondrocytes at the growth plate and is regulated by endocrine and paracrine factors such as growth hormone. Mutations that negatively affect chondrogenesis ca...

    Authors: Nami Mohammadian Khonsari, Sahar Mohammad Poor Nami, Benyamin Hakak-Zargar and Tessa Voth
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:11
  16. Long-term outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children with juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) have been investigated systematically, while short-term effects of HSCT on the ...

    Authors: Judith Beschle, Michaela Döring, Christiane Kehrer, Christa Raabe, Ute Bayha, Manuel Strölin, Judith Böhringer, Andrea Bevot, Nadja Kaiser, Benjamin Bender, Alexander Grimm, Peter Lang, Ingo Müller, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann and Samuel Groeschel
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:12
  17. Hyperoxia is a well-known cause of cerebral white matter injury in preterm infants with male sex being an independent and critical risk factor for poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Sex is therefore being widely...

    Authors: Donna Elizabeth Sunny, Elke Hammer, Sebastian Strempel, Christy Joseph, Himanshu Manchanda, Till Ittermann, Stephanie Hübner, Frank Ulrich Weiss, Uwe Völker and Matthias Heckmann
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:10
  18. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare congenital disease with a wide spectrum of severity characterized by skeletal deformity and increased bone fragility as well as additional, variable extraskeletal symptom...

    Authors: Julia Etich, Lennart Leßmeier, Mirko Rehberg, Helge Sill, Frank Zaucke, Christian Netzer and Oliver Semler
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:9
  19. Nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is caused by mutations in the active 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). The clinical symptoms can vary greatly. To date, no systematic s...

    Authors: Helmuth-Günther Dörr, Nadja Schulze, Markus Bettendorf, Gerhard Binder, Walter Bonfig, Christian Denzer, Desiree Dunstheimer, Kirsten Salzgeber, Heinrich Schmidt, Karl Otfried Schwab, Egbert Voss, Martin Wabitsch and Joachim Wölfle
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:8
  20. Biomarkers which predict future health outcomes are key to the goals of precision health. Such biomarkers do not have to be involved in the causal pathway of a disease, and their performance is best assessed u...

    Authors: Shivanthan Shanthikumar, Melanie R. Neeland, Jovana Maksimovic, Sarath C. Ranganathan and Richard Saffery
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:7
  21. The postnatal intestinal colonization of human milk-fed and formula-fed infants differs substantially, as does the susceptibility to infectious diseases during infancy. Specific ingredients in human milk, such...

    Authors: Antonia Nomayo, Andreas Schwiertz, Rainer Rossi, Katharina Timme, Janine Foster, Richard Zelenka, Josef Tvrdik and Frank Jochum
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:6
  22. Febrile neutropenia is a common and serious complication during treatment of childhood cancer. Empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics are usually administered until neutrophil cell count recovery. It was the aim...

    Authors: Mira Siegmund, Julia Pagel, Tasja Scholz, Jan Rupp, Christoph Härtel and Melchior Lauten
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:5
  23. To ascertain interactions of caffeine ingestion, food, medications, and environmental exposures during preterm human gestation, under informed consent, we studied a cohort of Mexican women with further preterm...

    Authors: M. R. Alcorta-García, C. N. López-Villaseñor, G. Sánchez-Ferrer, H. Flores-Mendoza, F. Castorena-Torres, M. A. Aguilar-Torres, C. M. Sepúlveda-Treviño, J. A. Hernández-Hernández, R. C. López-Sánchez and V. J. Lara-Díaz
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:4
  24. Optoacoustic imaging (OAI), or photoacoustic imaging (PAI), has fundamentally influenced basic science by providing high-resolution visualization of biological mechanisms. With the introduction of multispectra...

    Authors: Adrian P. Regensburger, Alexandra L. Wagner, Jing Claussen, Maximilian J. Waldner and Ferdinand Knieling
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:3
  25. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an indispensable process in the development of human female embryos. Reportedly, XCI occurs when a blastocyst contains 10–12 embryonic progenitor cells. To date, it remains u...

    Authors: Kenichi Kinjo, Tomoko Yoshida, Yoshitomo Kobori, Hiroshi Okada, Erina Suzuki, Tsutomu Ogata, Mami Miyado and Maki Fukami
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:1
  26. The impairment of nephrogenesis is caused by noxae, all of which are significantly different in molecular composition. These can cause an early termination of nephron development in preterm and low birth weigh...

    Authors: Will W. Minuth
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2020 7:2
  27. In Western countries, vegetarian diets are associated with lower intakes of energy, saturated fatty acids and animal protein and higher intakes of fibre and phytochemicals, compared to omnivorous diets. Whethe...

    Authors: Silvia Rudloff, Christoph Bührer, Frank Jochum, Thomas Kauth, Mathilde Kersting, Antje Körner, Berthold Koletzko, Walter Mihatsch, Christine Prell, Thomas Reinehr and Klaus-Peter Zimmer
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2019 6:4
  28. Low vitamin D serum concentrations have been associated with rickets and other disorders in observational studies. Since vitamin D serum concentrations in children and adolescents are frequently below referenc...

    Authors: Thomas Reinehr, Dirk Schnabel, Martin Wabitsch, Susanne Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, Christoph Bührer, Bettina Heidtmann, Frank Jochum, Thomas Kauth, Antje Körner, Walter Mihatsch, Christine Prell, Silvia Rudloff, Bettina Tittel, Joachim Woelfle, Klaus-Peter Zimmer and Berthold Koletzko
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2019 6:3
  29. Pureed complementary feeding products packed in squeezable plastic pouches, usually with a spout and a screw cap, have been increasingly marketed. The Committee on Nutrition recommends that infants and young c...

    Authors: Berthold Koletzko, Christoph Bührer, Regina Ensenauer, Frank Jochum, Hermann Kalhoff, Burkhard Lawrenz, Antje Körner, Walter Mihatsch, Silvia Rudloff and Klaus-Peter Zimmer
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2019 6:2
  30. Birth cohort studies can contribute substantially to the understanding of health and disease — in childhood and over the life course. The KUNO-Kids birth cohort study was established to investigate various asp...

    Authors: Susanne Brandstetter, Antoaneta A. Toncheva, Jakob Niggel, Christine Wolff, Silvia Gran, Birgit Seelbach-Göbel, Christian Apfelbacher, Michael Melter and Michael Kabesch
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2019 6:1
  31. β-Thalassemia is an inherited hematological disorder caused by mutations in the human hemoglobin beta (HBB) gene that reduce or abrogate β-globin expression. Although lentiviral-mediated expression of β-globin an...

    Authors: Justin S. Antony, Ngadhnjim Latifi, A. K. M. Ashiqul Haque, Andrés Lamsfus-Calle, Alberto Daniel-Moreno, Sebastian Graeter, Praveen Baskaran, Petra Weinmann, Markus Mezger, Rupert Handgretinger and Michael S. D. Kormann
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2018 5:9
  32. Survival rates of children with cancer are steadily increasing. This urges our attention to neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes, as these can markedly influence the quality of life of these children. Neuro...

    Authors: Chrysanthy Ikonomidou
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2018 5:8
  33. Outcome in treatment of childhood cancers has improved dramatically since the 1970s. This success was largely achieved by the implementation of cooperative clinical research trial groups that standardized and ...

    Authors: Stefan E. G. Burdach, Mike-Andrew Westhoff, Maximilian Felix Steinhauser and Klaus-Michael Debatin
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2018 5:6
  34. Antisense oligonucleotides are an emerging therapeutic option to treat diseases with known genetic origin. In the age of personalised medicines, antisense oligonucleotides can sometimes be designed to target a...

    Authors: Kelly M. Martinovich, Nicole C. Shaw, Anthony Kicic, André Schultz, Sue Fletcher, Steve D. Wilton and Stephen M. Stick
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2018 5:3
  35. Impaired regulatory T cell immunity plays a central role in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling is essential for regulatory T cells (TREG), and cytokine-inducible SH...

    Authors: Julia Seyfarth, Heinz Ahlert, Joachim Rosenbauer, Christina Baechle, Michael Roden, Reinhard W. Holl, Ertan Mayatepek, Thomas Meissner and Marc Jacobsen
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2018 5:2
  36. Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are at risk for severe infections. This is partially a result of their chronic disease condition but, moreover, a side effect of the...

    Authors: Teresa Schleker, Eva-Maria Jacobsen, Benjamin Mayer, Gudrun Strauss, Klaus-Michael Debatin and Carsten Posovszky
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2018 5:1
  37. Numerous investigations are dealing with anlage of the mammalian kidney and primary development of nephrons. However, only few information is available about the last steps in kidney development leading at bir...

    Authors: Will W. Minuth
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2017 4:12
  38. Mutations in the leptin gene (LEP) can alter the secretion or interaction of leptin with its receptor, leading to extreme early-onset obesity. The purpose of this work was to estimate the prevalence of heteroz...

    Authors: Adriana Nunziata, Guntram Borck, Jan-Bernd Funcke, Katja Kohlsdorf, Stephanie Brandt, Anke Hinney, Barbara Moepps, Peter Gierschik, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky and Martin Wabitsch
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2017 4:10
  39. Transcatheter closure has become the treatment of choice for secundum atrial septal defects (ASD II), but particularly in small children, there is concern regarding procedure-related complications.

    Authors: Roman Scheidmann, Thomas Paul and Matthias Sigler
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2017 4:9
  40. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders with impaired social interactions and communication and restrictive, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, and activities. A recent epid...

    Authors: Michaela Kuhlen, Julia Taeubner, Dagmar Wieczorek and Arndt Borkhardt
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2017 4:8
  41. Chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) belongs to the growing spectrum of autoinflammatory diseases and primarily affects the skeletal system. Peak onset ranges between 7 and 12 years of age. The clinical s...

    Authors: Sigrun Ruth Hofmann, Franz Kapplusch, Katrin Mäbert and Christian Michael Hedrich
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2017 4:7
  42. Precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), the most common childhood malignancy, arises from an expansion of malignant B cell precursors in the bone marrow. Epidemiological studies suggest that infect...

    Authors: Simone Bürgler and David Nadal
    Citation: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2017 4:6