Skip to main content

Table 1 Overview of early-life dietary modifications and known molecular effects

From: Impact of early-life diet on long-term renal health

Morphological/molecular effect Early-life dietary modification
Reduced nephron count Energy restriction [6, 7], low-protein diet [16, 17, 19], high- or low-salt diet [89], maternal deficiencies in vitamin A [83], iron [84], or zinc [87]
Dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) Energy restriction [7], low-protein diet [18, 23,24,25,26,27, 30], high-fat diet [56], and high-salt diet [91,92,93, 95]
Altered expression and/or activity of renal sodium transporters Low-protein diet [29, 31,32,33,34,35], high-fat diet [58, 60], and high-salt diet [93]
Oxidative stress Energy restriction [6, 7], low-protein diet [29, 30, 38], high-fat diet [56, 58, 62, 65], and high-fructose diet [77]
Inflammation Low-protein diet [30], high-fat diet [54, 65, 75, 76], Western-style diet (high fat/high fructose) [75, 76], and high-salt diet [93]
Dysregulated metabolic signaling, (e.g., AMPK, mTOR, or PPAR signaling) Energy restriction [8, 9, 13,14,15], low-protein diet [41], and high-fat diet [64]
Mitochondrial dysfunction Energy restriction [13,14,15], low-protein diet [40], and high-fat diet [63]
Endothelial dysfunction Energy restriction [6, 7], low-protein diet [21], and high-fructose diet [77]
Altered short chain fatty acid profile/dysregulated gut microbiota High-fat diet [61] and high-fructose diet [78]
Prostaglandin metabolism Low-protein diet [39]