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Table 2 Serum concentration of phagocyte-specific S100 proteins in systemic inflammatory diseases (adapted and updated from [15])

From: The role of S100 proteins in the pathogenesis and monitoring of autoinflammatory diseases

  S100A8/A9 levels (ng/ml) N S100A12 levels (ng/ml) N
Healthy controls 340 ± 70 50 50 ± 10 45
    50 (5)** 74
Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases
FMF 110,000 ± 82,000 20 6720 ± 4960 17
33,500 (22,200)** 7
PAPA 116,000 ± 74,000 11  
PAMI 2,045,000 ± 1,300,000 13  
 NOMID 2830 ± 580 18 720 ± 450 18
 MWS 4390 (2535)* 12 150 ± 60 17
 FCAS 3600 (4610)* 5
Polygenic autoinflammatory diseases
Systemic-onset JIA 14,920 ± 4030 60 7190 ± 2690 60
24,750 ± 11,410 20 3700 (1080)** 33
 Polyarticular JIA 2380 ± 530 89 395 (45)** 89
 PFAPA 3846 ± 1197 15 685 ± 210 15
Vasculitis
 Kawasaki disease 3630 ± 480 21 398 (294)* 67
 Henoch-Schoenlein nephritis 881 ± (670)* 30
Infections
 Severe febrile infections 3720 ± 870 66 470 ± 160 83
  1. All other data are mean ± 95% confidence interval
  2. Italics indicate the diseases with the significantly highest S100 protein serum levels
  3. FCAS familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, FMF familial Mediterranean fever, JIA juvenile idiopathic arthritis, MWS Muckle-Wells syndrome, N number of patients, NOMID Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disorder, PAMI PSTPIP1-associated myeloid-related proteinemia inflammatory, PAPA pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne syndrome, PFAPA periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, adenitis syndrome
  4. *Mean (standard deviation)
  5. **Mean (standard error of the mean)