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Table 1 Shigella effector proteins with their mechanisms, targets, and outcomes

From: Molecular mechanisms of Shigella effector proteins: a common pathogen among diarrheic pediatric population

Effector protein Role Target Outcome
Pic Serine protease O-linked glycan Impair PMN chemotaxis
IpaA Filopodial formation Vinculin and talin Stimulate filopodial formation
IpaB Formation of ion channel Plasma membrane Detection of host cell cholesterol
IpaB-IpaC Pore formation Lipid raft  
IpaD Assembly IpaB-IpaC (bacteria) Cholesterol sensor, activate T3SS
Induce apoptosis B cell Connection to the TLR-2 and induce apoptosis
IcsA Induce actin polymerization Cdc-42 Moving through actin polymerization
IcsB Inhibit autophagy Toca-1 Blocking recruitment of LC3 to the bacterial surface
IpgB1 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rac1 Mediate activation of ELMO and formation of ELMO-Dock180 complex
IpgB2 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rho Conformations change in Rho, mimicking Dbl family
IpgD Phosphoinositide phosphatase activity PIP2 Produce PIP5, mediating more bacterial invasion
SpeG Spermidine acetyltransferase spermidine Protects Shigella from ROS
IpaH 9.8 Ubiquitin E3 ligase NEMO Proteasomal degradation of NEMO and NF-κB activation
IpaH7.8 E3 ligase GLMN Activated inflammasome
IpaH4.5 Ubiquitin ligase TBK1 Activated INF regulatory factor 3
IpaH1.4 E3 ligase LUBAC Catalize functional subunit of LUBAC
IpaJ Cysteine protease ARF1 Cleavage of myristoyl group from GTP-active protein
OspB Remodeling of chromatin P38-ERK1/2 Diminish inflammatory cytokine production
OspC1 Mediate activation of kinase MEK/ERK Imbalance membrane stability
OspC3 Mediate inhibit activation of caspase Caspase-4 Inhibit epithelial cell death
OspF Phosphatase activity MAPK Suppress gene expression
OspG Kinase IϏB Inhibit activation of NF-κB
OspI Glutamine deaminase UBC13 Reduce inflammatory response by suppressing signaling through UBC13-TRAF6
OspZ Methyltransferase activity TAB-3 Inhibit signaling through TLR, IL-1