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Table 1 Overview on peritoneal histomorphology in children with normal renal function and chronic kidney disease grade 5 and in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD) with PD fluids containing low and high concentrations of glucose degradation products (GDP). EMT epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

From: How peritoneal dialysis transforms the peritoneum and vasculature in children with chronic kidney disease—what can we learn for future treatment?

Health CKD G5 Low GDP PD High GDP PD
Intact mesothelial monolayer Mesothelium largely preserved Reduced mesothelial cell coverage More mesothelial cell loss compared to low GDP PD
Three layers containing blood, lymphatic vessels, and nerves Vessel density mildly increased Major and diffuse increase in submesothelial vessel density within few months of PD Less submesothelial angiogenesis
Age-dependent vascularization and submesothelial thickness Isolated submesothelial inflammatory cells, sparse EMT cells Major submesothelial inflammatory cell invasion, inflammatory cytokines. Some EMT cells Less submesothelial inflammatory cell invasion, less cytokine induction, but pronounced EMT
   Slow but steady increase in submesothelial fibrosis More pronounced submesothelial fibrosis
  Moderate signs of vasculopathy Dialytic glucose exposure-related vascular complement activation Increased vascular AGE deposition, GDP exposure-related endothelial cell apoptosis, junction disruption, and endothelial cell loss. More lumen narrowing (intima thickening)