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Table 1 Selected molecular mediators involved in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Adapted from [21]

From: Patho-mechanisms of the origins of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Molecular mediator Levels associated with increased risk of BPD
Inflammatory mediators (cytokines/chemokines) [19, 20]
IL-6: interleukin-6 Higher
MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein-1 Higher
GCSF: granulocyte colony stimulating factor Lower
IL-1β: interleukin 1 beta Higher
IL-8: interleukin 8 Higher
TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha Higher
IFNγ: interferon gamma Higher
Growth factors
TGF β: transforming growth factor β [22] Higher
CTGF: connective tissue growth factor [23] Higher
PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor BB [24] Higher
KGF: keratinocyte growth factor [25] Lower
HGF: hepatocyte growth factor [26] Lower
FGF: fibroblast growth factor [27] Lower
Vascular mediators
VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor [28] Variable
Ang 2: angiopoetin 2 [29] Higher