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Table 1 Selected molecular mediators involved in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Adapted from [21]

From: Patho-mechanisms of the origins of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Molecular mediator

Levels associated with increased risk of BPD

Inflammatory mediators (cytokines/chemokines) [19, 20]

IL-6: interleukin-6

Higher

MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein-1

Higher

GCSF: granulocyte colony stimulating factor

Lower

IL-1β: interleukin 1 beta

Higher

IL-8: interleukin 8

Higher

TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha

Higher

IFNγ: interferon gamma

Higher

Growth factors

TGF β: transforming growth factor β [22]

Higher

CTGF: connective tissue growth factor [23]

Higher

PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor BB [24]

Higher

KGF: keratinocyte growth factor [25]

Lower

HGF: hepatocyte growth factor [26]

Lower

FGF: fibroblast growth factor [27]

Lower

Vascular mediators

VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor [28]

Variable

Ang 2: angiopoetin 2 [29]

Higher