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Fig. 4 | Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics

Fig. 4

From: Shaping of the nephron – a complex, vulnerable, and poorly explored backdrop for noxae impairing nephrogenesis in the fetal human kidney

Fig. 4

View onto the a early, b mid, and c late comma-shaped body (CSB) in the fetal human kidney by optical microscopy. These are near a CD ampulla (A) along its head (H), conus (CO), and neck (N). The proximal pole (PP) points to the medulla. Here, the parietal (Bowman’s capsule cells, BCC) and the visceral (podocytes, P) cell layers form the glomerulus anlage. Along a vertical axis, the tubule anlage (TA) including the proximal (PT), intermediate (IT), and distal (DT) tubule segments extends. a In the early comma-shaped body, the progenitor cell strand (black arrow head) with the pretubular aggregate (PTA) is cut off. The tubule anlage vertically elongates. The cleft (white arrows) between the conus of the CD ampulla and the comma-shaped body opens. Three internal folds become visible. The medial fold (white spot) is near the crotch, where the later connecting tubule (CNT) contacts the conus of the CD ampulla. The tip of this fold is the transition between the parietal cells of Bowman capsule and the proximal tubule. The inner fold (black spot) has a medial leg that lines to the crotch, where the CNT contacts the head of the CD ampulla. Its tip is the transition between the future proximal tubule (medial leg) and the visceral epithelial cell layer (lateral leg) developing into the podocytes (P). The lateral fold (black/white spot) has a medial leg containing the layer of visceral epithelial cells. It is identical with the lateral leg of the inner fold. The tip of the lateral fold lines to the lateral leg containing Bowman capsule cells (BCC). b The mid comma-shaped body shows a vertical elongation of the medial, inner, and lateral folds. The cleft (white arrows) between the conus of the CD ampulla and the medial aspect of the comma-shaped body elongates. The cleft (dashed white arrows) at the basal aspect of developing podocytes opens. The Bowman’s capsule cells are at the proximal pole. c In the late comma-shaped body, the cleft (white arrows) between the conus of the CD ampulla and the medial aspect of the comma-shaped body is reaching the center of the comma-shaped body. The cleft (dashed white arrows) at the basal aspect of developing podocytes changes course from vertical to transverse. The tubule segments elongate by meandering. C renal capsule

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