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Table 2 Pediatric populations at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency

From: Vitamin D supplementation after the second year of life: joint position of the Committee on Nutrition, German Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ e.V.), and the German Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (DGKED e.V.)

• Exclusively breastfed infants without vitamin D prophylaxis
• Infants, children, and adolescents with:
• Malabsorption or maldigestion disorders (e.g., celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, cystic fibrosis)
• Chronic inflammatory diseases (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease)
• Chronic kidney disease
• Chronic liver disease
• On permanent medication with substances that affect calcium or vitamin D metabolism (e.g., antiepileptic drugs, antiviral medication, fungicides, or high dose glucocorticoid therapy which inhibits intestinal calcium absorption and stimulates tubular calcium excretion)
• With very low sun exposure, for example, chronically immobilized children and adolescents
• With a migrant background (through the influence of pigmentation, nutrition, and sun exposure)