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Table 1 Neurotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents in rodent models [25]

From: Chemotherapy and the pediatric brain

Drug Form of neurotoxicity Age Brain region
Methotrexate
antimetabolite
Apoptotic and excitotoxic neuronal death, decline in neurogenesis, decrease in myelination, oxidative stress 7 days
3 months
3 months
12 months
Cortex, thalamus, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, corpus callosum, cerebellum, pons, medulla, hypothalamus [40, 41, 50, 68, 87, 88]
Cyclophosphamide
Ifosfamide
alkylating
Apoptotic and excitotoxic neuronal death, decline in neurogenesis, impairment of LTP, cytokine dysregulation, reduced glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase 7 days
8–10 weeks
2 months
Adult
7 months
12 months
Embryo
Cortex, thalamus, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, corpus callosum, neural tube [58, 68, 87,88,89,90,91]
Cisplatin
alkylating
Apoptotic and excitotoxic neuronal death,
Decreased cell division, altered granule cell migration and Purkinje cell dendrite growth, increased blood–brain barrier permeability, DNA damage due to oxidative stress
7 days
10 days
8 days
1 day
Embryo
Adult
Cortex, thalamus, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, cerebellar cortex, cerebellar granule neurons, hypothalamus [52, 68, 70, 92,93,94,95,96,97,98]
Vincristine
anti-mitotic
Apoptosis 8 days Cortex, thalamus, caudate nucleus, hippocampus [68, 70]