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Table 1 Common nucleotide chemistries used to synthesise antisense oligonucleotide molecule

From: The potential of antisense oligonucleotide therapies for inherited childhood lung diseases

Nucleotide chemistry Abbreviation Resistant to nuclease degradation RNase H activation Splice modulation Toxicity Charge Reference
Phosphorothioate DNA PS + + ++ Negative [15]
2′-O-methyl RNA OMe + + + Negative [16]
2′-O-Methoxyethyl RNA MOE + + Negative [13, 17]
Locked nucleic acid LNA + + + Uncharged [14, 18, 19]
Phosphoroamidate morpholino PMO + + Uncharged [20]
Peptide nucleic acid PNA + + Uncharged [21]