Skip to main content

Table 1 Main gastrointestinal pathogens and their specific mode of entry

From: The impact of hypoxia on intestinal epithelial cell functions: consequences for invasion by bacterial pathogens

Bacterial invasion


Host receptor/target


Internalization under hypoxia

Potential mechanism of hypoxia-induced changes

Zipper mechanism

Yersinia (invasin)


Signaling from Rac1 to Arp2/3 [37]

↓ [39]

Decreased receptor protein expression, reduced glycosylation and mislocalization in lipid rafts [39]


Listeria (InlA)


Ligase Hakai recruitment, clathrin endocytosis, and activation of Arp2/3 actin complex [53]

↑ [32]

Elevated expression of barrier protection genes, more increased levels of E-cadherin [54]


Listeria (InlB)

Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor)

Activation of Met and PI-3-kinase-mediated signaling [53]

↑ [32]

Increased expression of growth factor receptors [55]

Trigger mechanism

Pseudomonas (ExoS)

Mammalian factor FXYD3

Impairment of function of tight junctions [29]

↓ [31]

Increased barrier protection, more stable adherens, and tight junctions [54]


Shigella (IpaC)

Cdc42, Rac1, Rho

Activation of target, membrane ruffling [73]


Cytoskeleton rearrangements hinder membrane ruffling [40]


Salmonella (SipA, SipC)

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate PtdIns (4,5) P2

Phosphoinositide signaling; membrane ruffling and formation of macropinosomes [41]

↑ [32]

Changes in membrane lipid composition [40]