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Table 1 Main gastrointestinal pathogens and their specific mode of entry

From: The impact of hypoxia on intestinal epithelial cell functions: consequences for invasion by bacterial pathogens

Bacterial invasion Pathogen Host receptor/target Mechanism Internalization under hypoxia Potential mechanism of hypoxia-induced changes
Zipper mechanism Yersinia (invasin) β1-integrin Signaling from Rac1 to Arp2/3 [37] ↓ [39] Decreased receptor protein expression, reduced glycosylation and mislocalization in lipid rafts [39]
  Listeria (InlA) E-cadherin Ligase Hakai recruitment, clathrin endocytosis, and activation of Arp2/3 actin complex [53] ↑ [32] Elevated expression of barrier protection genes, more increased levels of E-cadherin [54]
  Listeria (InlB) Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) Activation of Met and PI-3-kinase-mediated signaling [53] ↑ [32] Increased expression of growth factor receptors [55]
Trigger mechanism Pseudomonas (ExoS) Mammalian factor FXYD3 Impairment of function of tight junctions [29] ↓ [31] Increased barrier protection, more stable adherens, and tight junctions [54]
  Shigella (IpaC) Cdc42, Rac1, Rho Activation of target, membrane ruffling [73] ↓[30] Cytoskeleton rearrangements hinder membrane ruffling [40]
  Salmonella (SipA, SipC) Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate PtdIns (4,5) P2 Phosphoinositide signaling; membrane ruffling and formation of macropinosomes [41] ↑ [32] Changes in membrane lipid composition [40]