Renal markers for oxidative stress in WT and VLCAD−/−mice under different stress conditions. White and black bars represent WT and VLCAD−/− mice, respectively. Values are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 5 to 6). Asterisk indicates significant differences between WT and VLCAD−/− mice within an experimental set. Number sign indicates significant differences between WT or VLCAD−/− mice under different stress conditions as compared to resting mice. Asterisk and number sign denote that values were considered significant if p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction and Student's t test). Specific activities of (A) NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase, (B) GPX, and (C) catalase under different stress conditions.